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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. The five components of a data communication system are the sender, receiver, transmission medium, message, and protocol. The advantages of distributed processing are security, access to distributed data- bases, collaborative processing, and faster problem solving. The three criteria are performance, reliability, and security. Advantages of a multipoint over a point-to-point configuration type of connec- tion include ease of installation and low cost.
Line configurations or types of connections are point-to-point and multipoint. We can divide line configuration in two broad categories: In half-duplex transmission, only one scn can send at a time; in a full-duplex transmission, both entities can send at the same time.
We give an advantage for each of four network topologies: The number of cables for each type of network is: The general factors are size, distances dorouzan by the networkstructure, and ownership. An internet is an interconnection of networks.
The Internet is the name of a spe- cific worldwide network A protocol defines what is communicated, in what way dn when. This provides accurate and timely transfer of information between different devices on a net- forouxan. Standards are needed to create and maintain an open and competitive market for manufacturers, to coordinate protocol rules, and thus guarantee compatibility of data communication technologies.
Unicode uses 32 bits to represent a symbol or a character. We can define differ- ent symbols or characters. With 16 bits, we can represent up to different colors. If one connection fails, the other connections will still be work- ing. The other devices will still be able to send data through the hub; there will be no access to the device which has the failed connection to the hub.
All transmission stops if the failure is in the bus. If the drop-line fails, only the corresponding device cannot operate.
The failed connection may disable the whole network unless it is a dual ring or there is a by-pass mechanism. This is a LAN. Theoretically, in a ring topology, unplugging one station, interrupts the ring. How- ever, most ring networks use a frouzan that bypasses the station; the ring can continue its operation. In a bus topology, no station is in the path of the signal.
Unplugging a station has no effect on the operation of the rest of the network. E-mail is not an interactive application. Even if it is delivered immediately, it may stay in the mail-box of the receiver for a while. It is not sensitive to delay. We normally do not expect a file to be copied immediately.
It is not very sensi- tive to delay. Surfing the Internet is the an application very sensitive foroizan delay.
We except to get access to the site we are searching. In this case, the communication is only between a caller and the callee. A dedi- cated line is established between them. The connection is point-to-point. The telephone network was originally designed for voice communication; the Internet was originally forpuzan for data communication. The two networks are similar in the fact that both are made of interconnections of small networks.
The telephone network, as we will see in future chapters, is mostly a circuit-switched network; the Internet is mostly a packet-switched network. The Internet forouzxn, as discussed in this chapter, include physical, data link, net- work, transport, and application layers. The network support layers are the physical, data link, and network layers. The application layer supports the user.
The transport layer is responsible for process-to-process delivery of the entire message, whereas the network layer oversees host-to-host delivery of individual packets. Peer-to-peer processes are processes on two or more devices communicating at a same layer 6.
Each layer calls upon the services of the layer just below it using interfaces between each pair of adjacent layers. Headers and trailers are control data added at the beginning and the end of each data unit at each layer of the sender and removed at the corresponding layers of the receiver.
They provide source and destination addresses, synchronization points, information for error detection, etc. The physical layer is responsible for transmitting a bit stream over a physical medium. It is concerned with a. The data link layer is responsible for a. The network layer is concerned with delivery of a fprouzan across multiple net- works; therefore its responsibilities include a.
The transport layer oversees the process-to-process delivery of the entire message. It is responsible for a. The fprouzan address is the local address of a node; it is used by the data link layer to deliver data from one node to another within the same network. The logical address defines the sender and receiver at the network layer and is used to deliver messages across multiple networks. The port address service-point identifies the application process on the station.
The application layer services include file transfer, remote access, shared data- base management, and mail services. The application, presentation, and session layers of the OSI model are represented by the application layer in the Internet model. The lowest four layers of OSI corre- spond to the Internet model layers. The International Standards Organization, or the International Organization of Standards, ISO is a multinational body dedicated to worldwide agreement on international standards.
Interface to transmission media: Access for the end user: Transmission of bits across the medium: Error correction and retransmission: Mechanical, electrical, and functional interface: Responsibility for carrying frames between adjacent nodes: Format and code conversion services: Establishing, managing, and terminating sessions: Ensuring reliable transmission of data: Log-in and log-out procedures: Providing independence from different data representation: If the corrupted destination address does not match any station address in the net- work, the packet is lost.
If the corrupted destination address matches one of the sta- tions, the frame is delivered to the wrong station. In this case, however, the error detection mechanism, available in most data link protocols, will find the error and discard the frame. In both cases, the source will somehow be informed using one of the data link control mechanisms discussed in Chapter Before using the destination address in an intermediate or the destination node, the packet goes through error checking that may help the node find the corruption with a high probability and discard the packet.
Normally the upper layer protocol will inform the source to resend the packet. Most protocols issue a special error message that is sent back to the source in this case. The errors between the nodes can be detected by the data link layer control, but the error at the node between input port and output port of the node cannot be detected by the data link layer.
Frequency and period are the inverse of each other. The amplitude of a signal measures the value of the signal at any point. The fre- quency of a signal refers to the number of periods in one second. The phase describes the position of the waveform relative to time zero.
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Fourier series gives the frequency domain of a periodic signal; Fourier analysis gives the frequency domain of a nonperiodic signal. Three types of transmission impairment are attenuation, distortion, and noise. Baseband transmission means sending a digital or an analog signal without modu- lation using a low-pass channel. Broadband transmission means modulating a digital or an analog signal using a band-pass channel.
A low-pass channel has a bandwidth starting from zero; a band-pass channel has a bandwidth that does not start from zero.
The Nyquist theorem defines the maximum bit rate of a noiseless channel. The Shannon capacity determines the theoretical maximum bit rate of a noisy channel. Optical signals have very high frequencies.
A signal is periodic if its frequency domain plot is discrete; a signal is nonperi- odic if its frequency domain plot is continuous. The frequency domain of a voice signal is normally continuous because voice is a nonperiodic signal.
An alarm system is normally periodic. Its frequency domain plot is therefore dis- crete.