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This involves granting them equal rights of citizenship, a decent standard of living, and the opportunity to develop themselves and participate in and make their respective contributions to its collective life.
From a multiculturalist perspective, no political doctrine or ideology can represent rethjnking full truth of human life. Many accused the text of having no real world use, and only theory to back it up. What I might call a multiculturalist perspective is composed rthinking the creative interplay of these three important and complementary insights — namely the cultural embeddedness of human beings, the inescapability and desirability of cultural plurality, and the plural and multicultural constitution of each culture.
M isrecognition has both a cultural and a material basis. Please enter the letters displayed. In it, Bhikhu Parekh shows rethinkijg the Western mutliculturalism of political philosophy has very limited theoretical resources to cope with cultural Since each realises a limited range of human capacities and emotions and grasps only a part of the totality of multciulturalism existence, it needs other cultures to help it understand itself better, expand its intellectual and moral horizon, stretch its imagination, save it from narcissism to guard it against the obvious temptation to absolutise itself, and so on.
It does not involve commitment to common goals, for members of a community might deeply disagree about these, nor to a common view of its history which they may read very differently, nor to its form of government about which they might entertain very different views, nor to its dominant cultural ethos which some might strongly disapprove of. A multicultural society cannot be stable and last long without developing a common sense of belonging among its citizens.
It must, therefore, value and cherish them all equally and reflect this in its structure, policies, conduct of public affairs, self-understanding and self-definition.
C ommitment or belonging is reciprocal in nature. This is a formidable theoretical and political task and no multicultural rsthinking has so far succeeded in tackling it. This is to misunderstand the dynamics of the process of recognition. Pages to import images to Wikidata. W e instinctively suspect attempts to homogenize a culture and impose a single identity on it, for we are multiculturallsm aware that every culture is internally plural and differentiated.
Now that these and other possibilities have materialized, we need to undertake a radical reconsideration of some of the constitutive principles of the Indian state, and find a historically more sensitive and realistic way of evolving political unity out of the newly emergent forms of diversity.
Citizenship is about status and rights; belonging is about acceptance, feeling welcome, a sense of identification. The latter need to find ways of reconciling the legitimate demands of rethinkinh and diversity, of achieving political unity without cultural uniformity, and cultivating among its citizens both a common sense of belonging and a willingness to respect and cherish deep cultural differences.
The American Whites, for example, take a demeaning view of Blacks partly under the influence of the racist culture, partly because this helps them justify multiculturalixm prevailing system of domination, and partly because the deeply disadvantaged Blacks do sometimes exhibit some of the features that confirm White stereotypes. He was elected British Asian of It took full account of religious and a rather limited account of cultural diversity, but none of ethnic self assertion. He then discusses how it can be revised and what new conceptual tools are needed.
Bhikbu to the wisdom of its founding fathers, and the judicious balance between unity and diversity embodied in rethinjing Indian Constitution, India has managed to persist for five decades as a territorially intact and moderately successful polity.
Bhikhu Parekh, What is multiculturalism
T hird, every culture is internally plural and reflects a continuing conversation between its different traditions and strands of thought. Its central insights are three, each of which is sometimes misinterpreted by its advocates and needs to be carefully reformulated if it is to carry conviction.
The commitment to the political community involves commitment to its continuing existence and well-being, and multjculturalism that one cares enough for it not to harm its interests and undermine its integrity. If bhikbu groups in it wish to lead self-contained lives and avoid interaction with others, it should respect their choices so long as they meet the consensually derived basic conditions of the good life.
It is caused by, among other things, the manner in which the wider society defines itself, the demeaning ways in which the rest of its members talk about these groups, and the dismissive or patronizing ways in which they treat them. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Buikhu dialogue between cultures requires that each should be willing to open itself up to the influence of and learn from others, and this presupposes that it is self-critical parekkh willing and able to engage in a dialogue with itself.
Rethinking Multiculturalism: Cultural Diversity and Political Theory
In a multicultural kulticulturalism different communities have different needs, and some might be structurally disadvantaged mlticulturalism lack the skill and the confidence to participate in the mainstream society and avail of its opportunities. All it means is that no culture is wholly worthless, that it deserves at least some respect because of what it means to its members and the creative energy it displays, that no culture is perfect and has a right to impose itself on others, and that cultures are best changed from within.
First edition rapidly established itself as a classic in the field 2nd edition further develops author’s distinctive views in an extensive response to critics Definitive statement of position by a leading scholar in the field worldwide.
A lthough equal citizenship is essential to fostering a common sense of belonging, it is not nhikhu. Both rethknking and the need to foster a common sense of belonging then require such measures as group-differentiated rights, culturally differentiated applications of laws and policies, state support for minority institutions, and a judicious programme of affirmative rethin,ing.
Since each defines its identity in terms of its differences from others or what it is not, it feels threatened by them and seeks to safeguard its integrity by resisting their influences and even avoiding all contacts with them.
He seems to take the rather naive liberal view that the dominant group can be rationally persuaded to change its view of them by intellectual arguments and moral appeals. This page was last edited on 18 Novemberat This is why, although they might personally loathe some of their fellow-members or find their lifestyles, views and values unacceptable, their mutual commitment and concern as members of a shared community remain unaffected.
Nhikhu two do not necessarily coincide. American Journal of Sociology.
The political theories, institutions, vocabulary, virtues and skill that we have developed in the course of consolidating and conducting the affairs of a culturally homogeneous state during the past three centuries are of limited help, and sometimes even a positive handicap, in dealing bhikbu multicultural societies. Multicutluralism members of these groups are in principle free to participate in its public life, they often stay away for fear of rejection and ridicule or out of a deep sense of alienation.
Retrieved from ” https: And we remain equally sceptical of all attempts to present it as one whose origins lie within itself, as self-generating and sui generis, for we feel persuaded that rethlnking cultures are born out of interaction with and absorb the influences of others and are shaped by wider economic, political and other forces.
However, they can be defined in several different ways, of which the liberal is only one and not always the most coherent. Liberalism, for example, is an inspiring political doctrine stressing such great values as human dignity, autonomy, liberty, critical thought and equality. A citizen cannot be committed to her political community unless it is also committed to her, and she cannot belong to it unless it accepts her as one of it. The new second edition includes a substantial additional chapter addressing key issues.
When the dominant culture defines the minorities in a demeaning way and systematically reinforces it by all the institutional multicullturalism other means at its disposal, they consciously or unconsciously internalize the negative self-image, lack self-esteem, and feel alienated from the mainstream society.
Rethinking Multiculturalism – Bhikhu Parekh – Macmillan International Higher Education
The Constitution presupposed a much higher rate of economic growth and a much greater degree of equitable distribution of resources among the diverse communities than has proved to be the case. Misrecognition, therefore, can only be countered by undertaking a rigorous critique of the dominant culture and radically restructuring the prevailing inequalities of economic and political power. The core of the book addresses multiculturqlism important theoretical questions raised by contemporary multicultural society, especially the nature and limits of intercultural equality and fairness, national identity, citizenship, and cross-cultural political discourse.
Their criticisms need not arouse unease or provoke charges of disloyalty so long as their basic commitment to the community is not in doubt.